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Hammam Izz El-Din

Places to visit in Tripoli-Lebanon :
WB00827_.GIF (132 bytes) Abed
WB00827_.GIF (132 bytes) Izz El-Din
WB00827_.GIF (132 bytes) Hajeb
WB00827_.GIF (132 bytes) Jadid
WB00827_.GIF (132 bytes) Nouri


"Cleanliness is next to godliness" appears to have been an adage dear to the heart of Emir Izzedin Aibek (1293 -1298) for barely four years after the city had fallen to Qala’un he set about building the new provincial capital’s first public bath. To accomplish this work of public utility he took choice marble fragments, sculptures and basins from Byzantine and Crusader churches which he then used freely to embellish his hammam

The Arab conquerors of the seventh century had come into contact and copied the Roman-Byzantine baths which existed in the captured eastern provinces of the Byzantine empire. The Romans with their organizing genius and love of luxury had developed not only the technique of bathing but also the planning of bath buildings as it never had been done before. The Izzedin baths of Tripoli follow the classic pattern of apodyterium, tepidarium and caldarium, called in Arabic the burrani (dressing room court around a fountain), the al-wustani or warm water room with small private bath rooms adjoining the al-hammi or very hot water and steam bath hall. Top

To decorate the front portal of his public bath Izzedin placed a fragment of double molding with a church inscription SCS Jacobus which probably came from a ruined Crusader church on or near the emplacement of the bath The slightly pointed arch underneath is of interest because this architectural feature has survived in later buildings in Tripoli and Lebanon and is believed to have been inspired by Crusader and Mamluk architecture of the thirteenth century. Within the hammam the inner portal appears to have been lifted intact from a Crusader church for on the stone carved lintel there appears the paschal lamb between two rosettes, a typically Christian motif. The carving has been whitewashed time and again throughout the years and is now crudely outlined in red paint with the inscription "ecce Agnus Dci" . Top

To avoid having apertures in the walls and ceilings for light, which would certainly result in heat loss, the domed roofs of the hammam are decorated by a series of green and blue glass roundels through which daylight filters giving the interior of the bath an eerie look . In the chambers there are several worn multicolored marble basins to collect water for the bathers. The hammam has served the people of Tripoli for seven hundred and eighty years, since Emir Izzedin’s day to the present time. Top

Apparently the Emir was so proud of his contribution to the city of Tripoli that he chose to be buried in a small mausoleum or ‘‘tomb-chapel’’ attached to the hamrnam. Over the mausoleum’s street window is the inscription: "In the name of Allah, this is the mausoleum of the pious Aibek, son of Abdallah of Mosul, governor of the royal province of the well-guarded conquests, may Allah have pity on him who has died on the 5 of the month of safar in the year 698 of the Prophet’s Flight (November 12, 1298) The emir’s coat of arms is a shield crossed by a single horizontal band, in the center of which is a circle.. The escutcheon is repeated three times beneath the inscription and is the best preserved example of Mamluk arms in Lebanon. In the courtyard of the mausoleum on a marble mosaic floor is a magnificent marble basin which may have served at one time as a baptismal fount in a church. Top

Historical References


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Photo By : Eng. Lamia KHAYAT


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